As is already the case in high-income countries (HICs), in a growing number of middle income countries (MICs), cancer represents the leading cause of non-accidental death among children and adolescents. While childhood mortality due to infectious diseases has been significantly reduced worldwide, deaths due to childhood cancer are increasing. A large and growing proportion of childhood mortality in both developed and developing countries is due to non-communicable diseases (NCD), especially childhood cancer. Most public health experts believe that this rate of increase is cause for concern.